Visual Acuity in EAE

Antineonatal Fc Receptor Antibody Treatment Ameliorates MOG-IgG-Associated Experimental Autoimmune En-cephalomyelitis.

STRIA TECH

Demyelinating autoimmune diseases usually impact the optic nerve and thus visual abilities. Optomotor reflex measurements can therefore be used to non-invasively monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Remlinger et al studied MOGAD, a rare autoimmune demyelinating CNS disorder, in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). They assessed the effects of treating those mice with monoclonal antibodies against the neonatal Fc receptor and found that this treatment reduced the severity of the disease. Measurements of visual acuity with Striatech’s OptoDrum correlated well with other disease markers.

Conditional Deletions of Hdc Confirm Roles of Histamine in Anaphylaxis and Circadian Activity but Not in Auto-immune Encephalomyelitis

STRIA TECH

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks myelin, which coats neurons in the CNS. Histamine has been thought to play a role in MS, effecting disease progression either positively or negatively, depending on the location of histamine action. In this study, Morin et al created a conditional mouse KO model of Hdc, the enzyme that synthesizes histamine, and induced EAE in these mice. Surprisingly, while some phenotypes in these mice were consistent with the lack of histamine, it had no impact on the development and severity of EAE. One behavioral readout of the disease progression in EAE is the decline of visual acuity, which can be measured with our OptoDrum. Consistent with the other observation, visual acuity declined in EAE Hdc-KO animals in the same way as in EAE Hdc-WT animals.

Immune modulation attenuates infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in mice before and after disease onset

STRIA TECH

CLN disease, a subtype of Batten disease, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration with onset in early childhood. This also affects vision. Some immuno-modulatory drugs are clinically established to significantly attenuate the condition. Groh et al show in a mouse model of CLN1 that such treatment can help both when given before symptom onset, and to a lesser degree also during disease progression, by interfering with neuroinflammatory activity of immune cells.

Tau modulates visual plasticity in adult and old mice

STRIA TECH

Tau, a protein known to be involved in Alzheimer’s disease, has elusive functionality in the healthy CNS. Using be-havioral measurements with our OptoDrum as a readout, Rodriguez et al could show that Tau is involved in adap-tive plasticity in the adult brain, in response to changes in sensory experience.

Empowering Retinal Gene Therapy with a Specific Promoter for Human Rod and Cone ON-Bipolar Cells

STRIA TECH

The authors present a crucial missing piece on the way to healing blindness: they describe a new promoter that can efficiently drive gene expression in human ON bipolar cells. Previous promotors worked well in mouse retina, but not in human retina. The new findings can pave the way to optogenetic gene therapy in blind human patients to restore functional vision. In this paper, Hulliger et al use our OptoDrum and show functional vision restoration in the rd1 mouse, a mouse model for Retinitis pigmentosa, at normal every-day light levels.

Rod nuclear architecture determines contrast transmission of the retina and behavioral sensitivity in mice

STRIA TECH

The chromatin in the nucleus of rod photoreceptors has an inverted structure in nocturnal animals. Metabolically, this is expensive to maintain, so it has been proposed that the inverted architecture provides an advantage during night vision. Subramanian et al could show with our OptoDrum that the inverted nuclear architecture provides improved contrast sensitivity in dark environments.